The Paleontological Society



Fourteenth Revision

Effective Date: 4 October, 2013

Founded: 30 December, 1908, in Baltimore, Maryland

Incorporated: 4 April, 1968 in the District of Columbia



§1. This Society shall be known as The Paleontological Society. The sole purpose of the Society shall be, and all its assets and earning shall be exclusively devoted to, the advance of the science of Paleontology.  

§2.  The Society shall be a strictly nonprofit organization, operated exclusively for the foregoing purpose, and no part of its net earnings shall inure to the benefit of any private individual and no substantial part of its activities shall be the carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation. The Society shall not participate or intervene in (including the publication or distribution of statements) any political campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office.  

§3.  No power granted to the Society, nor any purpose of the Society, shall be construed or utilized in any manner that would deny the Society status as a charitable corporation under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1994, as amended from time to time, or that would violate the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.  


The Society shall be composed of Members, Fellows, Spousal Members, Student Members, Retired Members, and Members Emeriti.  

§1.  Membership is open to anyone interested in paleontological work, whether as a professional scientist or an amateur.  

§2.  Active members who have contributed significantly to the advancement of paleontology may be designated as Fellows, following procedures set out in the

By-laws. Fellows shall comprise no more than ten percent of members of the Society. 

§3.  Any Member in good standing who has retired from active paleontological work is eligible, upon application to the Secretary, to become a Retired Member or a Member Emeritus. Retired Members and Members Emeriti have all the rights and privileges of Members, except that Retired Members receive the Journal of Paleontology but are billed for only that part of the annual dues designated by Council for the Journal. Members Emeriti pay no dues and do not receive the Journal of Paleontology.  

§4.  Members of all categories are eligible to vote and hold Office.  

§5.  This Constitution and the By-Laws permitted by it shall constitute a contract among the Members of the Society, which shall be governed by the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.  


§1. The Officers of the Society shall be President, President-Elect, Past-President, two Councilors-at-Large, of whom one must be less than 40 years of age when elected, Secretary, Treasurer, Managing Editor, Editor, or Co-Editors of all technical serial publications of the Society, Editor of the newsletter Priscum, Program Coordinator, Education Coordinator, and two Student Representatives. These Officers shall constitute the Council of the Society. The President and Councilors-at-Large shall be elected in a contested election with two Members competing on a ballot for each Office. The Student Representatives shall be appointed by the President and subject to confirmation by the Council. 

When Co-Editors share responsibility for a technical series, they shall share one vote such that each series shall be represented by a single vote. No one shall serve in more than one Office of the Society at the same time, and no one may have more than one vote on the Council. The Officers of the Society must be Members in good standing.  

§2.  The Past-President shall serve as member of Council for two years following his or her term as President. The Past-President shall serve as chairperson of the Paleontological Society Medal Committee, the Charles Schuchert Award Committee, and shall take responsibility for any external awards for which the Society is requested to submit nominees.  

§3.  The President shall function as presiding Officer at all meetings of the Society and of the Council. In case of the absence or disability of the President, the duties shall be assumed by the President-Elect.  

§4.  The President-Elect shall serve in that capacity as member of Council for the two years following his or her election. The President-Elect shall serve as chairperson of the Strimple Award Committee.  

§5. In addition to serving as Secretary of the Council, the Secretary shall keep records of Society proceedings, and a complete list of Members, Spousal Members, Student Members, Patrons, Retired Members, and Members Emeriti with the dates of their election to and separation from the Society.  

The Secretary shall attend to preparation, printing, and mailing of circulars, blanks, notifications of elections and meetings, and ballots and shall superintend other printing ordered by the President and shall have charge of its distribution.  

Except as otherwise provided, the Secretary shall have custody of Society property. Requests for reproduction of information from the Society's publications and waiver of copyright for publications of the Society shall be sent to the Secretary, who shall accept or reject such requests.  

§6.  The Treasurer shall have custody of all Society funds and shall keep detailed accounts of receipts and disbursements; the accounts shall be audited as provided in the By-Laws.  

§7.  The Councilor-at-Large who is under 40 years of age at the time of election shall serve as chairperson of the Membership Committee.  

§8.  The Managing Editor or Co-Editors of the Journal of Paleontology shall supervise all matters connected with the publication of the Journal of the Society, under the general direction of the Council.  

The Editor or Co-Editors of Paleobiology shall supervise all matters connected with publication of that journal, under the general direction of the Council.  

The Editor or Co-Editors of other technical series shall supervise all matters connected with the publication of their respective series, under the general direction and specific authority of the Council of the Society.  

The Editor of Priscum shall supervise all matters connected with publication of the newsletter, under the general direction of the Council. 

§9.  The Program Coordinator shall supervise the technical programs of all meetings sponsored or co-sponsored by the Society, except those of the Sections, and advise and assist in the activities of the Society.  

§10.  The Education Coordinator shall supervise the Society's education and outreach programs and related educational activities of all meetings sponsored or co-sponsored by the Society and shall advise and assist in the activities of the Society.  

§11.  The Student Representatives shall provide liaison between student members at large and the Council. The Student Representatives shall submit reports on their concerns and recommendations on issues that may affect the Society, including but not limited to recruitment of student members and retention of those members when they cease to be students. 

§12.  The President-Elect shall be elected every second year and shall not be eligible for re-election to that Office. In the third year of his or her tenure, the President-Elect shall succeed to the Office of President for two years. Terms for Treasurer and Secretary shall be three years; they shall not serve for more than six years; and they shall each be elected in different years. Terms for Managing Editor, Editor, or Co-Editor of all technical publications of the Society shall be three years; they shall not serve for more than six years; and they shall each be elected in different years. The terms for the Editor of Priscum, the Program Coordinator and the Education Coordinator shall be three years each, and they shall not serve for more than six years. The Program Coordinator-Elect will serve as an assistant to the Program Coordinator, but will not serve on the Council. The terms of Councilors-at-Large shall be two years with the two Councilors being elected in different years and neither eligible for re-election. The terms of the Student Representatives shall be two years, offset by a year, so a new Student Representative shall be appointed annually. Student Representatives are not eligible to serve more than one term.  The Office of Past-President shall be occupied for two years and need not be approved by election.  

§13.  Although the Council is clothed with executive authority and with legislative powers of the Society in the intervals between Society meetings, no act of Council affecting financial matters beyond the current year shall remain in force beyond the next Annual Meeting without ratification by the Society. Such ratification shall be by vote of all Members, of all categories, and patrons attending the Annual Meeting and by proxies designated on the annual ballot by Members not in attendance.  

§14.  Council shall have the power to fill vacancies ad interim in any of the Society Offices not otherwise provided for. It shall have control of Society publications, under provisions of the By-Laws. The Council may delegate its authority to an Executive Committee elected by the Council.  


Persons and organizations who have bestowed important favors upon the Society shall be eligible for election as Patrons. 


§1.  Each candidate for Membership shall submit to the Secretary an application on a form authorized for this purpose by the Council.  

§2.  Nominations for Officers shall be made by the Council, or as otherwise provided in the By-Laws. These nominations, with the exception of that of the Student Representatives, shall be submitted to a secret mail ballot by all Members. The result of the vote shall be announced at the Annual Meeting, and the Officers thus elected shall assume duty at the adjournment of the Meeting.  

§3.  Nominations for the honor of Patron shall originate in Council and shall be acted upon as prescribed in the By-Laws.  


The election of Officers, except Student Representatives, and votes upon extraordinary proposals, such as an amendment to the Constitution or By-Laws, shall be by mail ballot of the Membership.  Once ballots have been mailed, votes may be cast electronically or by return of a paper ballot. 


§1.  The Society shall hold at least one meeting each year (termed Annual Meeting). At least one stated session of the Annual Meeting, to be known as the Business Meeting, shall be devoted to Society business. Business order at the Business Meeting shall be that prescribed in the By-Laws. The program of the Scientific Sessions shall be determined by the Council or its delegate.  

§2.  Special meetings of the Society or its Sections may be called by the Council, and must be called upon written request of twenty-five Members.  

§3.  The Annual Meeting of the Council shall be held at the same place as the Annual Meeting of the Society and within the same time period. Interim meetings of the Council may be called by the President at such time as may be deemed necessary. In emergencies, the Council may conduct its affairs by mail or telephone.  


The Council shall have the power to establish Sections and Working Groups as needed to promote the aims of the Society.  


This Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the ballots cast by a mail ballot of the Membership, provided that the text of the amendment and notification of the impending ballot by supplied to the Membership at least two months prior to the mailing of the ballots.  


Upon dissolution of the Society, its assets remaining after the payment of all its obligations shall be transferred by gift only to one or more organizations of the type described in Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended from time to time; to the Federal Government or to a state or local government for public purposes; and no private individual shall by virtue of such dissolution ever receive or be entitled to any assets of the Society.  



§1.  Applications for Membership may be accepted at any time. Such applications shall state the type of membership sought -- Member, Retired Member, Spousal Member, or Student Member.  

§2.  The names of new Members shall from time to time be published in one of the Society's publications. The new Member shall be notified of election by the Treasurer or the Treasurer's delegate.  


§1.  A Committee on Nominations shall be appointed, consisting of six Society Members who are not members of the Council, plus the Secretary ex officio, who shall not vote. Committee members shall serve for three years. Two new members shall be appointed each year, one by the President and one by the Council; these appointments shall be made within one month after the Annual Meeting of the Society. The Committee shall be chaired by the senior member who was appointed originally to the Committee by the President. On or before a date specified by the Council, the Committee on Nominations shall present to the Council names of Members or Patrons nominated for Offices to be filled that year as follows:  

For President-Elect:  Four names.  

For confirmation as President:  The name of the President-Elect serving prior to the term to be filled. If this Member is unable to serve, the name of the Past-President serving in the year prior to the term to be filled shall be presented and the Past-President will serve until a special election is held.  

For Past-President:  The name of the President serving in the year prior to the term to be filled. If this Member is unable to serve, the name of the Past-President serving in the year prior to the term to be filled shall be presented. If he or she is unable to serve, the Office shall be vacated for a term and the committee chairmanships of the Past-President shall be assumed by the President.  

For one of the Councilors-at-Large (Unrestricted:  Four names.  

For one of the Councilors-at-Large (Under 40):  Three names of Members who will be less than 40 years at the time of their election.  

For Secretary:  One or more names.  

For Treasurer:  One or more names.  

For Program Coordinator:  One or more names.  

For Education Coordinator:  One or more names.  

For Student Representative:  No names; these Officers are appointed by the President subject to confirmation by Council.  

For Journal of Paleontology Managing Editor or Co-Editors:  One or more names.  

For Paleobiology Editor or Co-Editors:  One or more names.  

For Editor or Co-Editors of other technical series:  One or more names for each of the positions to be filled in that year. 

For Editor of Priscum:  One or more names. 

For candidates other than President-Elect or Councilors-at-Large, the Council shall then select one, or, in the case of Co-Editors, more than one, nominee for each Office from the Nominating Committee list for that Office, and these shall constitute the regular ticket. This ticket must be approved by a majority of the entire Council.  

The Nominating Committee shall be responsible for assuring that each individual on the slate from which Council selects the regular ticket is willing to be considered by Council, to stand for election, to serve if elected, and is a Member in good standing.  

In the event a President-Elect or Councilor-at-Large Elect is unable to serve, Council will arrange a Special Election. Council will choose from a list of candidates proposed by the Nominating Committee.  

§2.  The Nominating Committee shall consider suggestions made by the Membership, in writing, prior to the Annual Meeting. Blanks for suggestions of nominees for the following year shall be sent to the Membership together with the annual ballot.  

§3.  The list of nominations shall be published in the January number of the Journal of Paleontology or the next available issue prior to the general balloting of the Membership, which is normally in August. Any twenty Members may forward to the Secretary other nominations for any or all Offices. All such nominations reaching the Secretary at least ninety days before the Annual Meeting shall be printed, together with the names of the nominators, as special tickets. The regular and special tickets shall then be mailed to the Members at least sixty days before the Annual Meeting.  

§4.  Each year the Secretary shall appoint a Ballot Canvass Committee, to consist of two Members who are not members of Council, which shall count the returned ballots and report the results to the Secretary before the time of the Annual Meeting of the Council. The Secretary shall bring the Ballot Canvass Committee's report to Council and, during the Business Meeting of the Society, shall announce the results.  

§5.  In the event no candidate for a given Office receives a majority of the votes cast, a special election of the two candidates having the highest number of votes shall be held during the Annual Meeting.  


§1.  Upon receipt of a gift of one thousand dollars ($1,000 U.S.) or more to the Society, a person or organization may be designated a Patron by vote of the Council. A person may also be considered for designation by the Council as a Patron in recognition of exceptional service rendered to the Society, or in recognition of other favors.  

§2.  Donors of gifts of ten thousand dollars (US$10,000) or more for the benefit of the Society may be designated as Grand Patrons by Presidential Citation. 


§1.  Annual dues are a responsibility of the Council. A subscription to the Journal of Paleontology, the official Journal of the Society, is included in the dues for all except Spousal Members. No person shall be accepted as a Member until the prescribed dues are paid. A new Member shall receive all issues of the Journal of Paleontology published in his or her initial year. Following the initial year, annual dues are payable after billing and before January first.  

§2.  Spousal Member shall pay only that part of the annual dues designated for operating expenses of the Society; they shall not be obligated for payment of the part designated for publication of the Journal of Paleontology nor shall they receive the Journal of Paleontology. Spousal Members are entitled to such consideration only if their spouses are Members of the Society who pay full dues and receive the Journal of Paleontology.  

§3.  Student Members shall pay a reduced Membership fee, as established by Council. Student Membership shall be available to full-time students making progress toward a degree. The Student Member shall automatically be elevated to Member and assessed appropriate dues when studies are completed.  

§4.  Retired Members shall receive the Journal of Paleontology and shall pay only that part of the annual dues designated for publication of that Journal.  

§5.  Members Emeriti shall not pay dues and shall not receive the Journal of Paleontology.  

§6.  An arrearage in payment of annual dues shall deprive a Member of the privilege of taking part in the management of the Society and of receiving the publications of the Society. An arrearage continuing more than one (1) year shall be construed as a notification of withdrawal.  

§7.  The Council shall have the power to waive the annual dues in whole, or in part, in exceptional cases, but such an exception may be rescinded by the Council at any time.  

§8.  Members may sponsor subscriptions for journals published by the Society that will be delivered to other individuals. Fees shall be established by Council.  

§9.  Members may have their issues of the journals delivered to other individuals. The Council may establish an additional fee for increased handling and postage costs.  


§1.  No pecuniary obligation in excess of five hundred dollars ($500 U.S.) shall be contracted in the name of The Paleontological Society by any Officer or Member of the Society without express sanction of the Society or of the Council. Such sanction is automatically conferred by Council approval of an Annual Budget submitted by the Treasurer, or of budgets submitted by the Editor or Co-Editors of the Society's publications, if those budgets are separate from that of the Society as a whole.  

§2.  The Treasurer shall give bond, in the sum of one thousand dollars ($1,000 U.S.), for the safekeeping of the funds of the Society.  

Funds may be deposited in a bank of the Treasurer's discretion, but shall not be invested without authority of the Council. Accounts shall be balanced as of the 31st day of December.  

§3.  A creditor of the Society shall present to the Treasurer an itemized bill. The Treasurer will then attach the bill to a suitable voucher form providing for certification (1) of performance and correctness of price by the official or officials of the Society immediately responsible and (2) of the accuracy of extensions by the Treasurer. All vouchers will be initialed by the President, or, in his or her inability to act, by the President-Elect. The Treasurer shall then pay the bill, and the voucher and canceled check shall be retained as a record.  

§4.  Early in each calendar year the Treasurer shall present to the auditors for their examination a compilation of the financial records of the Society, duly posted and balanced, and vouchers for the preceding year. The authors will certify to the President the proper completion of this compilation and the correctness of the Treasurer's records.  

§5.  Increases in specific assessments, such as annual dues, are subject to approval by majority vote of the Council conducted at the Annual or other meetings or by mail vote.  

§6.  The Council shall form a Financial Management and Investment Committee to advise Council and to recommend to Council and the Society appropriate ways and means to increase, preserve, and manage the Society's resources. There shall be no more than ten and no fewer than five committee members, consisting of four or more Members appointed by the Council for their special capabilities and four ex officio members who shall be the President, Treasurer, Secretary, and President-Elect of the Society. The terms of appointment of members shall be three years after initial staggered terms of shorter duration to establish a rotational pattern. In exercising its responsibilities, the Committee may recommend to the Council prudent programs of investment of current and endowment income, more efficient or less costly methods of conducting the Society's financial affairs, new or enhanced sources of gifts or grant funds, and may act as a fund-raising arm of the Society consistent with the Society's goals and with Council's approval.  


§1.  At each Annual Meeting the Treasurer shall review expenditures for the preceding year, assess the financial status of the Society, and present a budget, or, in the event of financial uncertainties, a broad financial projection for the forthcoming year.  

§2.  Prior to preparation of the annual budget, the Treasurer shall receive, from the Editor or Co-Editors of each of the Society's technical publication series, a budget projection for the areas of their responsibility. These projections shall be included in the annual budget.  


§1.  The Council is in charge of all publications of the Society.  

§2.  One copy of the Journal of Paleontology shall be sent to each Member, Student Member, Patron, and Retired Member.  

§3.  Other publications that may be authorized from time to time by the Council may be distributed gratis or sold, according to the decision of the Council.  


The Publication Endowment Fund shall consist of gifts or grants made as an endowment in aid of publication and of such monies as Council shall direct be added from operating or other funds. Assets received for this fund shall be kept by the Treasurer as a separate account or accounts. After the Publication Endowment Fund reaches a value of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000 U.S.), disbursements from it may be authorized but shall not exceed one-half of the annual income from the Fund. After the value of one-hundred-thousand dollars ($100,000 U.S.) is reached, the full income may be expended. The principal of the Fund may not be expended except by two-thirds vote of Council unless terms of the donations involved specifically stipulate otherwise.  


§1.  The order of business at Annual Meetings of the Society shall be as follows:  

(1)  Call to order by the presiding Officer. 

(2)  Introductory ceremonies. 

(3)  Report of the Council (including reports of the Officers). 

(4)  Appointment of Auditing Committee. At each Annual Meeting the President shall appoint two Members not members of Council to serve as auditors. 

(5)  Declaration of the vote for Officers, and election by the Membership in case of failure to elect by the Society through transmitted ballots. 

(6)  Declaration of Council vote for Patrons. 

(7)  Deferred Business. 

(8)  Awards. 

(9)  New Business. 

(10)  Announcements. 

(11)  Introduction of new Officers. 

(12)  Presidential address (optional). 

§2.  At an adjourned meeting the order shall be resumed at the place reached on the previous adjournment, but new business will be in order before the announcements.  

§3.  At any Special Meeting the order of business shall be numbers (1), (2), (3), (9), followed by the special business for which the meeting was called.  

At each Annual Meeting, the Treasurer shall review expenditures for the preceding year, assess the financial status of the Society, and present a budget, or, in the event of financial uncertainties, a broad financial projection for the forthcoming year.  


§1.  Establishment of a Section of The Paleontological Society must be initiated by the Council upon petition of twenty or more Members.  

§2.  Upon receipt and approval of such a petition, Council shall prepare an enabling act for such a Section, which must include the name of the Section and conditions of eligibility for Membership in the section.  

§3.  The Enabling Act for each Section must be ratified by a majority of ballots cast in a special vote to be held in conjunction with the annual ballot for Officers. Notice of such election shall be published in the Journal of Paleontology with the regular ticket for Officers.  

§4.  Each Section shall prepare a Constitution and By-Laws that shall not conflict in any way with the Constitution and By-Laws of The Paleontological Society or with the Enabling Act that created that Section.  


Any group of paleontologists sharing interest in a particular paleontological topic will, on application to the Council, be considered for formal affiliation with The Paleontological Society as a Working Group. The Paleontological Society will promote the efforts of its Work Groups by publication of announcements and reports of their activities. Whenever possible, meetings of Working Groups shall be coordinated with general meetings of the Society.  


§1.  Purpose of the award.  Because the choice will reflect the objectives and standards of The Paleontological Society, the recipient should be a person whose eminence is based on advancement of knowledge in paleontology.  It is recognized that this medal may be awarded intermittently.  

§2.  The Medal Committee shall be advisory to Council and shall consist of seven Members of the Society broadly representative of the disciplines embraced by the Society.  

Each President-Elect should determine appropriate successors to the retiring members of the Committee and appoint these persons on becoming President.  

The terms of service of appointed members are three years and will be staggered so that two members of the Committee are replaced each year. The Past-President shall be the seventh member and shall serve as Chairperson of the Committee.  

§3.  As soon as practicable following appointment of the new members, the Committee shall solicit nominations from the entire Membership and following a review of the nominations received shall decide whether it is appropriate to award the Medal at the next Annual Meeting. If the Committee recommends that the Medal not be awarded for that year, the President should be so informed.  

§4.  If the Committee recommends awarding of the Medal, it should present a slate of three nominees arranged in order of Committee preference together with supporting statements for consideration by the Council.  

The Council shall select the recipient of the Medal from a slate that will normally, but not necessarily, be the one recommended by the Committee.  

The Medal will be presented at the Annual Meeting either to the recipient or to a representative of the recipient, with an appropriate citation.  


§1.  Purpose of the Award. Because the choice will reflect the objectives and standards of the Paleontological Society, the recipient should be a person whose work early in his or her career reflects excellence and quality.  

§2.  Ordinarily, The Paleontological Society shall present the Charles Schuchert Award to a Member under 40 years of age at the time the award is presented. This Award may be made intermittently.  

§3.  The Charles Schuchert Award Committee shall be a separate committee whose method of appointment, terms of service, and procedures for selecting nominees shall conform to those described for The Paleontological Society Medal Committee in Chapter 12, items 2, 3 and 4, of the By-Laws.  


§1.  Purpose of the Award. The Strimple Award is given to recognize outstanding achievement in paleontology by amateurs. The criteria for making the Award may include a record of outstanding research and publication, the making of outstanding collections, the safeguarding of unique paleontological materials through varied public service approaches, teaching activities dealing largely with paleontological topics, and collaborative efforts with others working in paleontology. For purposes of this Award, an amateur is considered to be someone who does not make his or her living full-time from paleontology.  

§2.  The Strimple Award will be presented by The Paleontological Society upon recommendation of the Strimple Award Committee. This Award may be made intermittently.  

§3.  The Strimple Award Committee shall be a separate committee. Members are appointed by, and serve at the pleasure of, the President-Elect, who serves as chairperson.  

§4.  If the Committee determines that an award is to be made, it shall so notify the President, who shall at the same time be given the name and credentials of the Committee's nominee for the Award. The Council shall consider the nomination of the Committee; if the nomination is approved, the Award shall be presented at the next Annual Meeting of the Society. If the nomination is not approved by the Council, no Award shall be made in that year.  


§1.  Purpose of the membership category.  The category of Fellow is established to recognize members of the Paleontological Society who have made significant contributions to paleontology through research, teaching, or service to the profession. 

§2.  Recipients of the Charles Schuchert Award automatically become Fellows, as do recipients of the Paleontological Society Medal if they have not previously been elected to fellowship. 

§3.  Nomination.  Any member of the Paleontological Society may nominate another member for election to fellowship, but the nomination must also have the support of two active Fellows.  The status of Fellow is intended for those who have compiled a substantial record of high quality work in the profession.  Consequently, apart from recipients of the Schuchert Award, nominees for fellowship must have been dues-paying members of the Paleontological Society for at least seven years prior to nomination.  Nominations may be submitted to the Committee on Fellowship through the Secretary of the Society. 

§4.  Committee on Fellowship.  Nine Fellows, elected by the Fellows of the Society, will constitute the Committee on Fellowship.  Members of the committee will serve for three years, three new members being elected each year.  The Committee on Fellowship will elect its own chairperson. The Committee will recruit candidates to run for election as active members complete their terms of service.  The Committee is charged to ensure that a broad range of subdisciplines of paleontology is represented among the Fellows and on the Committee itself. 

§5.  Election to Fellowship.  The Committee on Fellowship will review the nominations it receives annually and submit a list, with supporting justification, of no more than four candidates to the body of Fellows of the Paleontological Society for their consideration.  Names of those candidates whose nominations are approved by two-thirds of the Fellows voting will be submitted to the Paleontological Society Council for election as Fellows.   


The By-Laws may be amended in the same manner as prescribed for amendments to the Constitution except that a majority of the ballots cast shall be sufficient.   





Date and Revision Publication, Effective Date
1910 — (Original document) GSA Bulletin 21, p. 77-82.
1921 — (Reprint of original) GSA Bulletin 32, p. 150-156.
1936 — (First revision) Jour. Paleontology 10, p. 418-422.
1949 — (Second revision) Proc. GSA 1948, p. 267-272.
1965 — (Third revision) Jour. Paleontology 39, p. 530-533.
1974 — (Fourth revision) Jour. Paleontology 48, p. 206-211.
1976 — (Fifth revision) Jour. Paleontology 50, p. 995-1000.
1978 — (Sixth revision) Not published.
1980 — (Seventh revision) Not published.
1987 — (Eighth revision) Jour. Paleontology, 61, p. 857-863. Effective 28 Oct., 1987
1996 — (Ninth revision) Priscum, Jan. 1997, and Website. Effective 29 Oct., 1996
1997 — (Tenth revision) Website.  Effective 21 October, 1997
1998 — (Eleventh revision) Website.  Effective 27 October, 1998
2004 — (Twelfth revision) Website.  Effective 8 November, 2004
2007 — (Thirteenth revision) Website.  Effective 29 October, 2007
2013 — (Fourteenth revision) Website.  Effective 4 October, 2013